Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy: An Expanding Clinical Spectrum


Background. Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a rare autosomal recessive epileptic encephalopathy caused by antiquitin (ALDH7A1) deficiency. In spite of adequate seizure control, 75% of patients suffer intellectual developmental disability. Antiquitin deficiency affects lysine catabolism resulting in accumulation of ??-aminoadipic semialdehyde/pyrroline 6' carboxylate and pipecolic acid. Beside neonatal refractory epileptic encephalopathy, numerous neurological manifestations and metabolic/biochemical findings have been reported. Methods and results. We present a phenotypic spectrum of antiquitin deficiency based on a literature review (2006 to 2015) of reports (n = 49) describing the clinical presentation of confirmed patients (n > 200) and a further six patient vignettes. Possible presentations include perinatal asphyxia; neonatal withdrawal syndrome; sepsis; enterocolitis; hypoglycemia; neuroimaging abnormalities (corpus callosum and cerebellar abnormalities, hemorrhage, white matter lesions); biochemical abnormalities (lactic acidosis, electrolyte disturbances, neurotransmitter abnormalities); and seizure response to pyridoxine, pyridoxal-phosphate, and folinic acid dietary interventions. Discussion. The phenotypic spectrum of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is wide, including a myriad of neurological and systemic symptoms. Its hallmark feature is refractory seizures during the first year of life. Given its amenability to treatment with lysine-lowering strategies in addition to pyridoxine supplementation for optimal seizure control and developmental outcomes, early diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is essential. All infants presenting with unexplained seizures should be screened for antiquitin deficiency by determination of ??-aminoadipic semialdehyde/pyrroline 6' carboxylate (in urine, plasma or cerebrospinal fluid) and ALDH7A1 molecular analysis

Pediatr Neurol Jun;59:6-12